Perovskite semiconductors differ from most inorganic and organic semiconductors due to the presence of mobile ions in the material. Although the phenomenon is intensively investigated, important questions such as the exact impact of the mobile ions on the steady-state power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability remain. Herein, a simple method is proposed to estimate the efficiency loss due to mobile ions via “fast-hysteresis” measurements by preventing the perturbation of mobile ions out of their equilibrium position at fast scan speeds ((Formula presented.) 1000 V s−1). The “ion-free” PCE is between 1% and 3% higher than the steady-state PCE, demonstrating the importance of ion-induced losses, even in cells with low levels of hysteresis at typical scan speeds ((Formula presented.) 100 mV s−1). The hysteresis over many orders of magnitude in scan speed provides important information on the effective ion diffusion constant from the peak hysteresis position. The fast-hysteresis measurements are corroborated by transient charge extraction and capacitance measurements and numerical simulations, which confirm the experimental findings and provide important insights into the charge carrier dynamics. The proposed method to quantify PCE losses due to field screening induced by mobile ions clarifies several important experimental observations and opens up a large range of future experiments.

The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
Solar RRL
Hybrid Solar Cells

Le Corre, V., Diekmann, J., Peña-Camargo, F., Thiesbrummel, J., Tokmoldin, N., Gutierrez-Partida, E., … Stolterfoht, M. (2022). Quantification of Efficiency Losses Due to Mobile Ions in Perovskite Solar Cells via Fast Hysteresis Measurements. Solar RRL, 6, 2100772: 1–10. doi:10.1002/solr.202100772