Mechanical metamaterials are carefully engineered materials whose proper- ties are controlled by their structure, not by their composition, which allows using metamaterials to study and control physical effects in detail. Here we develop metamaterials to study the sequential, complex response of frustrated materials that are cyclically driven. In particular, we focus on metamaterials that act as collections of hysteretic, bistable elements called hysterons. We create hysterons in metamaterials by using local frustration at defects and by using a competition between two global, incompatible deformations modes. We show how we can tune these hysterons, both by rational design and by using spatial gradients in the mechanical driving. Then we show that collectively, our samples exhibit complex transition pathways, including those with avalanches, and study the role of hysteron interactions. Finally, we explore how to control the frustration by local defects in so-called monoholar metamaterials.

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