Initiating replication synchronously at multiple origins of replication allows the bacterium Escherichia coli to divide even faster than the time it takes to replicate the entire chromosome in nutrient-rich environments. What mechanisms give rise to synchronous replication initiation remains however poorly understood. Via mathematical modelling, we identify four distinct synchronization regimes depending on two quantities: the duration of the so-called licensing period during which the initiation potential in the cell remains high after the first origin has fired and the duration of the blocking period during which already initiated origins remain blocked. For synchronous replication initiation, the licensing period must be long enough such that all origins can be initiated, but shorter than the blocking period to prevent reinitiation of origins that that the delay between the firing of the first and the last origin scales with the coefficient of variation (CV) of the initiation volume. Matching these to the values measured experimentally shows that the firing rate must rise with the cell volume with an effective Hill coefficient that is at least 20; the probability that all origins fire before the blocking period is over is then at least 92%. Our analysis thus that the low CV of the initiation volume is a consequence of synchronous replication initiation. Finally, we show that the previously presented molecular model for the regulation of replication initiation in {E. coli} can give rise to synchronous replication initiation for biologically realistic parameters.