Thin films of silicon dioxide find numerous applications in electronic and photonic technology. Several techniques have been developed to grow these layers, including sputter deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal oxidation. An alternative technique that is inexpensive, and does not require vacuum or high temperature, uses the sol-gel process.

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Journal Adv. Mater.
Vossen, D.L.J, de Dood, M.J.A, van Dillen, T, Zijlstra, T, van der Drift, E, Polman, A, & van Blaaderen, A. (2000). Novel method for solution growth of thin silica films from tetraethoxysilane. Adv. Mater., 12, 1434–1437.