Si/SiOx heterostructures show a photovoltaic effect when the samples are annealed to form Si quantum dots. Subsequently applying dielectric breakdown increases the shortcircuit current by up to an order of magnitude.

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van Loon, R.V.A, Catchpole, K.R, & Polman, A. (2008). Photovoltaic effect in Si/SiOx heterostructures. In IEEE LEOS, 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Sorrento, Italy, 17-19 September 2008 (pp. 393–394). [s.n.].