With a phase-sensitive near-field microscope we measure independently the two in-plane electric field components of light propagating through a 2D photonic crystal waveguide and the phase difference between them. Consequently, we are able to reconstruct the electric vector field distribution with subwavelength resolution. In the complex field distribution we observe both time-dependent and timeindependent polarization singularities and determine the topology of the surrounding electric field.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Burresi, M., Engelen, R. J. P., Opheij, A., van Oosten, D., Mori, D., Baba, T., & Kuipers, K. (2009). Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale. Phys.Rev.Lett., 102(Article number: 33902), 1–4. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.102.033902