The isothermal crystallization process of thin amorphous solid water ASW films on Ru 0001 has been investigated in real time by simultaneously employing helium atom scattering, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal temperature-programmed desorption. The measurements reveal that the crystallization mechanism consists of random nucleation events in the bulk of theASW films, followed by homogeneous growth. Morphological changes of the solid water film during crystallization expose the water monolayer just above the substrate to the vacuum during the crystallization process.
J. Chem. Phys.

Kondo, T, Kato, H.S, Bonn, M, & Kawai, M. (2007). Morphological change during crystallization of thin amorphous solid water films on Ru(0001). J. Chem. Phys., 126(Article number: 181103), 1–5. doi:10.1063/1.2739504