First-principles molecular dynamics simulations were used to calculate the sound velocity of dense hydrogen, and the results were compared with extrapolations of experimental data that currently conflict with either astrophysical models or data obtained from recent global oscillation measurements of Jupiter. Excellent agreement with the extrapolated experimental data was obtained. These results strongly support the notion that the existing models for the jovian interior need to be revised.


Alavi, A., Parrinello, M., & Frenkel, D. (1995). Ab initio calculation of the sound velocity of dense hydrogen: implications for models of Jupiter. Science, 269, 1252–1254.