A 4 cm long Er-doped Al203spiral waveguide amplifier was fabricated on a Si substrate, and integrated with wavelength division multiplexers within a total area of 15 mm2. When pumped with 9 mW 1.48 µm light from a laser diode, the amplifier shows 2.3 dB net optical gain at 1.53 µm. The gain threshold was 3 mW. The amplifier was doped with Er by ion implantation to a concentration of 2.7X 1020 cm-3. The data agree well with calculations based on a model which includes the effects of cooperative upconversion and excited state absorption. For an optimized amplifier, net optical gain of 20 dB is predicted.

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Journal Appl. Phys. Lett.
van den Hoven, G.N, Koper, R.J.I.M, Polman, A, van Dam, C, van Uffelen, J.W.M, & Smit, M.K. (1996). Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett., 68, 1886–1888.