Surface passivation at low processing temperatures becomes an important topic for cheap solar cell processing. In this study, we first give a broad overview of the state of the art in this field. Subsequently, the results of a series of mutually related experiments are given about surface passivation with direct Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) of silicon oxide (Si-oxide) and silicon nitride (Si-nitride). Results of harmonically modulated microwave reflection experiments are combined with Capacitance-Voltage measurements on Metal-lnsulator-Silicon structures (CV-MIS), accelerated degradation tests and with Secondary lon Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) measurements of hydrogen and deuterium concentrations in the passivating layers. A large positive fixed charge density at the interface is very important for the achieved low surface recombination velocities S. The density of interface states Dit is strongly reduced by post deposition anneals. The lowest values of S are obtained with PECVD of Si-nitride. The surface passivation obtained with Si-nitride is stable under typical operating conditions tor solar cells. By using deuterium as a tracer it is shown that hydrogen in the ambient of Ihe post deposition anneal does not play a role in the passivation by Si-nitride. Finally, the results of CV-MIS measurements (Capacitance-Voltage measurements on Metal-lnsulator Silicon structures) on deposited Si-nitride layers are used to calculate effective recombination
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

Leguijt, C., Eikelboom, J. A., Weeber, A. W., Schuurmans, F. M., Sinke, W., Alkemade, P. F. A., … Verhoef, L. A. (1996). Low temperature surface passivation for silicon solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 40, 297–345. doi:10.1016/0927-0248(95)00155-7