Minor modifications to a commercially available angle encoder which normally operates in air make it suitable for use in an ultrahigh-vacuum environment. Its compact design is expected to lead to a wide range of applications in surface science instrumentation.

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Journal Rev. Sci. Instrum.
Citation
de Haas, E, Barsingerhorn, W, van der Veen, J. F, & Sturre, J. (1997). Adapting a high-precision angle encoder to use in ultrahigh vacuum. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 68, 1341–1343.