Irradiation of rutile samples by electrons of sufficient energy (> 2 keV) results in a negative potential at the sample surface. The interpretation of the dose dependence of this surface voltage with the aid of the measured secondary electron emission properties of rutile, results for a primary electron energy of ≈ 1500 eV in an electron stimulated oxygen desorption cross section in the range of 4 X 10-18esd (cm2) < 4 x 10-19.

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Journal Appl. Surf. Sci.
Hopman, H. J, Verhoeven, J, Scholtz, J. J, & Fastenau, R. (1997). Time variation of secondary electron emission during electron bombardment of rutile. Appl. Surf. Sci., 111, 270–275.