A modified LEED/Auger diagnostic allows the measurement of the coefficient of secondary electron emission, d, under electron bombardment. To measure currents on insulators, the system is pulsed. Problems due to charging are alleviated by alternating between pulses in which the target charges negatively (d < 1) or positively (d > 1). A measurement of d requires a total primary beam charge of

American Institute of Physics
C. Jacquot

Hopman, H. J, & Verhoeven, J. (1998). Secondary electron emission from insulators. In C Jacquot (Ed.), Production and Neutralization of Negative Ions and Beams : Eighth International Symposium / Production and Application of Light Negative Ions : Seventh European Workshop : A Joint Meeting, Villagium of Giens, France, September 1997 (pp. 221–224). American Institute of Physics.