The phenomenon of orientation of liquid crystals by surfaces has been known nearly as long as have liquid crystals themselves. The phenomenon has mainly been studied in low-molecular-weight nematic liquid crystals, both because of the simplicity of their structure and because of the use of this type of liquid crystal in displays. Most of the present chapter is therefore be dedicated to this type of liquid crystal.

D. Demus , J. W. Goodby , G. W. Gray , H. W. Spiess , V. Vill

Jérôme, B. (1998). Surface alignment. In D Demus, J. W Goodby, G. W Gray, H. W Spiess, & V Vill (Eds.), Handbook of Liquid Crystals ; vol. 1 : Fundamentals (pp. 535–548). Wiley-VCH.