The local dispersion relation of a photonic crystal waveguide is directly determined by phase-sensitive near-field microscopy. We readily demonstrate the propagation of Bloch waves by probing the band diagram also beyond the first Brillouin zone. Both TE and TM polarized modes were distinguished in the experimental band diagram. Only the TE polarized defect mode has a distinctive Bloch wave character. The anomalous dispersion of this defect guided mode is demonstrated by local measurements of the group velocity. The measured dispersion relation and measured group velocities are both in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

Opt. Express

Engelen, R. J. P., Karle, T. J., Gersen, H., Korterik, J. P., Krauss, T. F., Kuipers, K., & van Hulst, N. F. (2005). Local probing of Bloch mode dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide. Opt. Express, 13(12), 4457–4464. doi:10.1364/OPEX.13.004457