We developed and demonstrate an analysis method in which we calibrate the intensity scale of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using Cu Ka reflectometry. This results in quantitative in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures. Only three free parameters are needed to obtain the calibrated profiles, corresponding to three TEM image intensity levels. Additionally, the optical indices of the two multilayer materials used and the assumption that the layers are laterally homogeneous are used in the model. The power and the general usefulness of the method is demonstrated using experimental data of W / Si and Mo / Si multilayer systems with sharp interfaces as well as multilayers of which the interfaces were deliberately intermixed.

J. Appl. Phys.

Kessels, M. J. H., Bijkerk, F., Tichelaar, F. D., & Verhoeven, J. (2005). Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures. J. Appl. Phys., 97(Article number: 93513), 1–8. doi:10.1063/1.1882773