The defect tolerance of halide perovskite materials has led to efficient optoelectronic devices based on thin-film geometries with unprecedented speed. Moreover, it has motivated research on perovskite nanowires because surface recombination continues to be a major obstacle in realizing efficient nanowire devices. Recently, ordered vertical arrays of perovskite nanowires have been realized, which can benefit from nanophotonic design strategies allowing precise control over light propagation, absorption, and emission. An anodized aluminum oxide template is used to confine the crystallization process, either in the solution or in the vapor phase. This approach, however, results in an unavoidable drawback: only nanowires embedded inside the AAO are obtainable, since the AAO cannot be etched selectively. The requirement for a support matrix originates from the intrinsic difficulty of controlling precise placement, sizes, and shapes of free-standing nanostructures during crystallization, especially in solution. Here we introduce a method to fabricate free-standing solution-based vertical nanowires with arbitrary dimensions. Our scheme also utilizes AAO; however, in contrast to embedding the perovskite inside the matrix, we apply a pressure gradient to extrude the solution from the free-standing templates. The exit profile of the template is subsequently translated into the final semiconductor geometry. The free-standing nanowires are single crystalline and show a PLQY up to ∼29%. In principle, this rapid method is not limited to nanowires but can be extended to uniform and ordered high PLQY single crystalline perovskite nanostructures of different shapes and sizes by fabricating additional masking layers or using specifically shaped nanopore endings.

Philips , NWO
Nano Lett.
Nanoscale Solar Cells

Oener, S., Khoram, P., Brittman, S., Mann, S., Zhang, Q., Fan, Z., … Garnett, E. (2017). Perovskite Nanowire Extrusion. Nano Lett., 17(11), 6557–6563. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02213