Whole grains of emmer wheat were heated in a pre-heated tube oven at temperatures ranging from 130-700°C under controlled anoxic conditions for maximum 280 min. For each temperature a separate experiment was carried out. Physical properties including mass loss, thermal lag, external and internal morphology and the vitrinite reflectance, C and N content, and DTMS under CI (NH3) and EI conditions were used to monitor changes as a function of the temperature. The results show remaining starch and protein rich material up to 250°C. From 310-400°C a secondary, thermally stable, product is formed and at higher temperatures a strongly carbon enriched tertiary product.

J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.

Braadbaart, F., van der Horst, J., Boon, J. J., & van Bergen, P. F. (2004). Laboratory simulations of the transformation of emmer wheat as a result of heating. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 77, 957–973. doi:10.1023/B:JTAN.0000041672.45140.e9